Consensus Reports

These reports are unique, authoritative expert evaluations. Each report is produced by a committee of experts selected by the Academy to address a particular statement of task and is subject to a rigorous, independent peer review.

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Showing results 1 - 5 of 164

Application of Systematic Review Methods in an Overall Strategy for Evaluating Low-Dose Toxicity from Endocrine Active Chemicals (2017)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates toxic chemicals as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment. Traditional toxicity testing relies heavily on studies that expose test animals to chemicals at amounts much higher than typical human exposures (i.e., low doses). However, some chemicals can cause health effects at low doses. This report outlines a strategy to improve EPA's ability to evaluate evidence o... More >>

Report in Brief

A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Program (2017)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports extramural research at academic and nonprofit institutions through a competitive, peer-reviewed grant program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR. The STAR program funds research to address critical gaps in knowledge in areas of science that are relevant to Environmental Protection Agency's mission. At the request of EPA, this report assesses the STAR program's scientific merit... More >>

Report in Brief

Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA (2017)

Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts a range of studies to evaluate exposure to, and effects of, air pollutants on human health. A subset of those studies involves intentionally exposing human volunteers to pollutants by inhalation under controlled experimental conditions. The exposure can produce transient and reversible physiologic responses (such as a temporary change in lung function), but it i... More >>

Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations (2017)

The availability of tools to assess human health risks from chemical exposures have increased rapidly in the 21st century. For example, new personal sensors and sampling techniques offer unparalleled opportunities to characterize individual exposures, new in vitro assays can now evaluate a number of cellular processes and responses, and -omics technologies have advanced molecular epidemiology, which focuses on underlying biology rather tha... More >>

Report in Brief

Refinements to the Methods for Developing Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines (2016)

Human spaceflight is inherently risky, with numerous potential hazards posed at each phase of a mission. Some of the potential health risks arise from the effects of microgravity on the body and from the environmental conditions associated with living and working in spacecraft. Several hundred chemicals are likely to be found in the closed environment of the spacecraft, and as the frequency, complexity, and duration of human spaceflight... More >>